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Data Questions: 

Where is this data from?

This chart is based on data from KOTRA (the Korea Trade-Investment Promotion Agency), which in turn is based on mirrored Chinese customs statistics reported by GTIS Global Trade Atlas, with corrections for possible misreporting (including estimates of China's unreported crude oil exports to North Korea.) As full KOTRA data for 2016 is not yet available, 2016 data is based on Chinese customs data reported by KITA (the Korea International Trade Association), with an estimated $280 million in Chinese crude oil exports to North Korea added to the data.

How are trade categories organized?

This chart is based on the Harmonized System of merchandise trade classifications, an internationally-recognized and standardized system. Categories in the chart are mostly categorized by HS section, the broadest grouping of merchandise definitions. HS sections under which North Korea has minimal exports are included in the "other or unspecified" pie slice. Clicking on an individual pie slice will bring up data on 2-digit HS chapters within that section. (HS codes are further subdivisible into 4-digit and 6-digit definitions, which are not included in this chart.)

What are North Korea's primary imports from China?

North Korea's imports are somewhat more diversified than its exports; the country's largest imports from China are crude oil and refined petroleum (both are included within the "HS 27: Mineral Fuels, Oils, Waxes, & Bituminous Substances" category). Other major reported imports include machinery, electronics, textile fabrics, and trucks.

According to press reports, North Korea also imports a significant amount of luxury goods from China, which is prohibited by UN sanctions. (These sanctions, however, only provide a limited definition of luxury goods, and individual states have leeway in determining what qualifies.) While luxury goods may be included under a range of HS codes, it is likely that mirror trade statistics do not fully capture the value of such goods imported by North Korea.

Where can I find more detailed data?

The UN Comtrade database allows users to research trade patterns based on HS codes, trading partners, and years. Additionally, the Korea International Trade Association's website, using Chinese customs data, incorporates provincial-level Chinese data on Chinese commodity trade, including with North Korea.

What items are prohibited for export to North Korea under international sanctions?

Successive UN Security Council Resolutions, most recently UNSCR 2321 (adopted in November 2016), restrict or prohibit certain categories of trade with North Korea, as well as placing restrictions on the country's financial and shipping activities.

The Resolutions include an arms embargo, and a prohibition on the sale or transfer of dual use items that could be used for nuclear, missile, or WMD development. Additionally, the following items are prohibited for export to North Korea:

  • Luxury goods, defined by various Resolutions as including but not limited to certain types of jewelry; yachts; luxury automobiles and racing cars; luxury watches; aquatic recreational vehicles; snowmobiles; items of lead crystal; recreational sports equipment; rugs and tapestries; and porcelain or bone china tableware.
  • Aviation fuel, jet fuel, and rocket fuel, other than aviation fuel supplied to civilian passenger aircraft outside the DPRK to the extent necessary for round-trip flights; and
  • New helicopters and vessels.

Additionally, the provision of bulk cash and gold to North Korea is prohibited when it could contribute to North Korea's WMD programs or the evasion of sanctions. 

While China's Ministry of Commerce has published lists of military and dual-use goods prohibited for export to North Korea, it has not provided a list of prohibited luxury goods.